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Justice et injustice environnementales

Abstract : Inequalities produce significant and countable disparities between human groups, ineconomic, social and health outcomes. Environmental inequalities are also observed andstudied in relation to levels of exposure or vulnerability of the individuals and groupsconcerned. But when differences show up in thefield of inequalities, we are leaving simplereporting and making a value judgment. And when we move from environmentalinequalities to forms of environmental injustice, we move to social, political and evenideological claims. From the idea of justice, might the environment become the object of anew and legitimate social demand? How has this social demand appeared? Is it only a newecological expression or demand? Where across the history of social, economic, even racialinequalities is its source? Environmental questions are no longer solely in the purview ofmiddle class ecology movements. They involve vital questions for populations concernedabout their access to resources, responses to their fundamental needs, preservation of theirheritage, their common heritage, and even recognition of rights and dignity. The currentAmerican movement for ``environmental justice'' presents forms of social and healthinequalities in a new light, under which they take on the appearance of injustice. The localcrises (pollution, contamination and disasters) that have dotted the 20th century have led tonew demands by groups of victims. The cases of environmental injustices are reaching anew geographic scale with globalisation, new temporal heights (risks of chronic morbidityand even mortality) and, even more, ethical limits in terms of social justice (ecological debt
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 8, 2020 - 10:06:51 AM
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Cyrille Harpet. Justice et injustice environnementales. Environnement, Risques and Santé, John Libbey Eurotext, 2011. ⟨hal-02960994⟩

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