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Demographic and socio-economic factors related to food intake and adherence to nutritional recommendations in a cohort of pre-school children

Abstract : Objective: To examine: (i) children's food intake and adherence to both Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating and Dietary Reference Intakes; and (ii) the social and demographic factors related to children's food intake. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010, a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on energy, macronutrient and food consumption was derived from responses to a 24 h dietary recall interview addressed to children's mothers and day-care staff when the children were 4 years old. Subjects: A total of 1549 children aged 4 years who participated in a nutritional sub-study. Results: The mean daily total energy intake was 6360 kJ (1520 kcal) for girls and 6916 kJ (1653 kcal) for boys. For boys and girls alike, energy intake was comprised of approximately 54 % carbohydrates, 31 % fats and 15 % proteins. The mean number of servings consumed from each of the four essential food groups closely approached the dietary recommendations made by Canada's Food Guide for Healthy Eating; however, <2 % of the children in the present study actually met the full dietary guidelines. The dietary intake of pre-school children was associated with socio-economic and demographic factors, most notably mother's level of education, mother's immigrant status and sex of the child. Conclusions: Diet-related disparities associated with socio-economic and demographic factors exist from as early as 4 years of age.
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Lise Dubois, Anna Farmer, Manon Girard, Daniel Burnier, Marion Porcherie. Demographic and socio-economic factors related to food intake and adherence to nutritional recommendations in a cohort of pre-school children. Public Health Nutrition, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2011, 14 (6), pp.1096-1104. ⟨10.1017/S1368980010003769⟩. ⟨hal-02884260⟩

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