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Open access



  • Altmetrics

    Altmetrics are alternative ways of recording and measuring the use and impact of scholarship. Rather than solely counting the number of times a work is cited in scholarly literature, alternative metrics also measure and analyze social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, blogs, wikis, etc.), document downloads, links to publishing and unpublished research, and other uses of research literature, in order to provide a more comprehensive measurement of scholarships reach and impact.


  • Bibliometrics

    Bibliometrics is the branch of library and information science concerned with the application of mathematical and statistical analysis to bibliography. Bibliometrics involves the statistical analysis of books, articles, or other publications.


  • CC Attribution (BY)

    CC Attribution (BY) - a licence clause that allows the reuse, sharing, and remixing of materials providing the original author is appropriately attributed. Aside from attribution the CC-BY licence has no other restrictions on copying. Compatible with free cultural works.


  • Diamond Open Access

    Basically these journals are free to read and free to publish in. In the humanities you see quite a lot of Diamond Open Access journals. They charge no APCs and are often financed by sponsorships, grants, institutional funds, etc.


  • Embargo period

    Embargo period - a length of time imposed on a research output for users who have not paid for access, or do not have institutional access, before it is made freely available.


  • Final draft

    The latest draft sent by the author to the publisher, after a possible peer review. In practice, this article version features the finalised content and its content is identical to that published by the publisher, but this version does not have the final layout, i.e. it does not feature the logos and page numbers (journal layout) of the published version. Names ‘Accepted Manuscript (AM)’, ‘Author Accepted Manuscript (AAM)’, ‘post print’ or ‘post-refereeing’ are also used


  • Gold Open Access

    Open access at the time of publication. Gold Open Access can be considered to be 'born Open Access'. Fully Open Access journals often (but not always) charge a fee for publication.

  • Green Open Access

    Making a version of work (usually an AAM) available in an open access repository. These can be institutional such as the Cambridge Repository or subject based, such as arXiv, PubMed Central, RePEc or SSRN. Placing work in ResearchGate or is not considered to be green open access. Green Open Access can be considered to be 'secondary Open Access'.


  • Hybrid journals

    Hybrid journals are subscription journals that charge an extra fee to make a specific article Open Access while the remainder of the journal remains behind a paywall. This type of Gold Open Access is always accompanied by a fee.


  • Institutional Repository

    Institutional Repository - An online database designed to collect the intellectual output of a particular institution or university, including digital collections such as electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), pre-prints, or faculty scholarship, and presents associated metadata regarding the these items




  • Metadata

    Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource. Metadata is often called data about data or information about information. The term 'documentation' encompasses all the information necessary to interpret, understand and use a given dataset or set of documents. On this website, we use 'documentation' and 'metadata' (data about data - usually embedded in the data files/documents themselves) interchangeably.


  • Open Access

    Open Access: making peer reviewed scholarly manuscripts freely available via the Internet, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full text of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only

  • Open Access Journal

    One way of providing Open Access is to publish in an Open Access Journal. These journals make their articles available for free by funding their publication services in other ways than through end-user subscriptions. A lot of journals fund their workings by charging Article Processing Charges (APCs), although not all publishers do and there exist huge variations in the actual amount of the APC. A lot of traditional journals also offer the possibility of making


    An ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify academic authors and contributors.


  • Peer review

    Process of evaluation of an academic article or book, prior to publication to ensure a certain standard of quality. Peers are experts in the article’s subject or discipline. There are many ways of reviewing, e.g. double blind peer review, board reviews and more recently open review, or other forms such as post-publication peer review. 

  • Post-print

    Post-print - a manuscript draft after it has been peer reviewed.

  • Pre-print

    a manuscript version that the author has sent to the publisher and that has not been peer reviewed. The contents of the manuscript may still change.
  • Pre-print

    Pre-print - a manuscript draft that has not yet been subject to formal peer review, distributed to receive early feedback on research from peers.


  • Repository

    An online database of Open Access works. Repositories do not undertake peer review but do hold material that has been peer reviewed elsewhere. In addition repositories can hold 'grey literature' such as Theses, Discussion Papers, Datasets and other material.


  • Sherpa/Romeo

    RoMEO is part of the SHERPA Services based at the University of Nottingham. RoMEO has collaborative relationships with many international partners, who contribute time and effort to developing and maintaining the service. Current RoMEO development is funded by JISC.





  • Zenodo

    Zenodo a research data repository for all disciplines created by OpenAIRE and CERN.